ALBERT-BIROT, Pierre (1876-1967)
Editor of SIC (1916-1919).

ALBERTS, Johannes ()

ALBRECHT, Johannes Sokrates
Unknown artist. Participant of the First International Dada Fair - Otto Burchard Gallery, Berlin 1920.

ALEKSIC, Dragan (1901-1958)

ANDRIEUX, Louis (See ARAGON, Louis)

APOLLINAIRE, Guillaume (1880-1918)
Apollinaire [pseudonym of Wilhelm Albert Vladimir Apollinaris Kostrowitzky] moved to Paris in 1899 and by the time of his death during the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918 he was the unchallenged leader of the city’s literary and artistic Avant Garde. His depression after implication in the 1911 theft of the 'Mona Lisa' led to friends setting up the journal Les Soirées de Paris for him to edit. There he championed everything new in art, literature, and film. He contributed a host of articles to newspapers and journals, celebrating Cubism, Futurism, and Simultaneism, and coining the terms Orphism and Surrealism. His literary output ranged from pornography to innovative poetry, such as Alcools (1913) and Calligrammes (1918); he pioneered verse without punctuation, one-line poems and visual poetry. [BL].
[Apollinaire - Official Site]

ARAGON, Louis (1897-1982)
Louis Aragon (b. 1897 in Paris) wrote his first serious text, Alcide ou De l'Esthétique du Saugrenu, in 1917. A review of Apollinaire's Les Mamelles de Tiresias appeared in SIC in March 1918, and Aragon's first poems were published in the same month in the journal Nord-Sud. In March 1919 the first issue of the journal Littérature appeared, coedited by Aragon, André Breton, and Philippe Soupault. Upon the invitation of the Littérature group, Tristan Tzara moved from Zurich to Paris, an event which Aragon retold in an essay 'Tristan Tzara arrive Paris'. On 7 February 1920 the dadaists held a soirée in the Club du Faubourg, which Aragon described in 'Manifestation du Faubourg'. Aragon performed the part of 'Monsieur Cricri' in both parts of Tzara's La Première aventure céleste de Monsieur Antipyrine in the spring of 1920. On 17 February 1921 Aragon's first novel, Anicet ou le panorama, roman, was published. On 14 April 1921 the 'Grande saison Dada' opened, described by Aragon in 'La Grande saison Dada 1921'. Aragon and Breton organized an exhibition of Max Ernst's works at the gallery Au Sans Pareil, May 2, 1921 in Paris. On 13 May the dadaists launched a trial against Maurice Barrès, a prominent symbolist writer, poet, and journalist, whom they blamed for attacking the safety of the spirit. Aragon played the role of the public defender. After 1924, Aragon became a key member oF the surrealist movement and a prominent writer of the communist left. He died on 24 December 1982 in Paris. [NGA].
[Louis Aragon Online].

ARENSBERG, Walter Conrad (1878-1954)
American art collector, critic and poet. Between 1913 and 1950 Walter and Louise Arensberg collected the works of artists such as Marcel Duchamp, Walter Pach, and Beatrice Wood. The Arensbergs became particularly close with Marcel Duchamp. They would become the artist's life-long patrons and form the largest, most significant collection of his work.

ARNAULD, Céline (1885-1952)
Writer associated with the Littérature group in Paris. Céline Arnauld took part in Dada performances. She is credited in the program of the Manifestation Dada de la Maison d’Oeuvre (March 1920) in La Première Aventure Céleste de M. Antipyrine by Tristan Tzara. She is also recorded as an author and performer of a dialogue called 'Jeu d’éches' in the Festival Dada at the Salle Gaveau. She was a director of the short-lived but appreciated journal Projecteur (1920) and a collaborator of 391, Z and other Dadaist journals. [NGA].

ARP, Hans (Jean) (1886-1966)
See on this site: Hans (Jean) Arp.


BAADER, Johannes (1875-1955)
See on this site: Johannes Baader.

BAARGELD, Johannes Theodor (1892-1927)
See on this site: Johannes Baargeld.

BALL, Hugo (1875-1927)
See on this site: Hugo Ball.

BARON, Jacques (1905-1986)
Initially involved with the Dada movement; with Crevel, Vitrac and Limbour active for the journal Aventure. Baron became a founding member of the Surrealist movement and contributed to La Révolution surréaliste.

BLUMENFELD, Erwin (1897-1969)
Compared to his fashion photographs, the early work is less known: the often bitingly humorous Dada collages produced between 1916 and 1933. His friendship with Paul Citroen and Walter Mehring, the association with Berlin's bohemia surrounding Else Lasker-Schüler and Herwarth Walden's Galerie Der Sturm, and his worship of George Grosz collided with Blumenfeld's career in the garment trade. Blumenfeld sensed the urge to write, paint, and act on stage, but still he pursued the career of a businessman and, in 1923, opened a shop for women's leather goods in Amsterdam. Blumenfeld's cynical and extremely individualistic approach, humor, scorn, and anarchy were perfectly Dada.

BOESNER, Carl ()
Photographer. Participant of the First International Dada Fair - Otto Burchard Gallery, Berlin 1920.


BRAUNER, Victor (1903-1966)
With the poet Ilarie Voronca (1903-1946) Victor Brauner co-founded the Dadaist review 75HP in Bucharest. He went to Paris in 1925 but returned to Bucharest a year later. In Bucharest in 1929 Brauner was associated with the Dadaist and Surrealist reviews Punct, Integral and Unu. In 1930 Brauner met André Breton in Paris and discovered Surrealism, which became his new source of inspiration. In 1935, financial troubles compelled him to return to Bucharest. But he left again in 1938, making France his permanent home. After the Second World War, Brauner's reputation grew rapidly, and he exhibited regularly in New York, London, Paris, and Amsterdam.

BRETON, André (1896-1966)
During World War I Breton served as a nurse in Nantes. In February 1916, at the hospital, he met Jacques Vaché. Vaché's irreverent attitude toward art, literature, and society made him a fascinating companion. After four weeks at the front, he was reassigned to a military hospital in Paris, where he again came into contact with the literary avant-garde. Through his friendship with the poet Guillaume Apollinaire, Breton met Philippe Soupault. Together with Louis Aragon, Breton and Soupault founded Littérature in 1919. In early 1919 Breton started a correspondence with Tristan Tzara. Between 1920 (Pour Dada) and 1922 (Après Dada), Breton participated in and helped organize Dada events in Paris. Earlier that year he had acrimoniously split with Tristan Tzara over the direction of Dada in Paris. In 1924 he launched his first Manifesto of Surrealism and edited the Surrealist magazines La Révolution Surréaliste (1924-1929), which included the 'Second Manifesto of Surrealism' (1929) and the financially precarious Le Surréalisme au service de la révolution (1930-1933). He condemned Surrealists, such as Bataille, Artaud, Soupault, who dared to deviate from his position. In 1927 he joined the French Communist party (Gas Workers Section) until expelled in 1935. His Surrealist novel, Nadja, was published in 1928. [NGA]
[André Breton]

BUFFET, Gabrielle (1881-1985)
Gabrielle Buffet, musician and friend of the composer Edgard Varèse, had a crucial influence on Picabia’s art. She married Francis in 1909. They stayed together until 1917.



CANTARELLI, Gino (1899-1950)
Gino Cantarelli was an Italian Dadaist poet and painter; associated first with Futurism, then with Dada. From 1917 to 1920 he published the journal Procellaria, together with Aldo Fiozzi, a journal which combined Futurist and Dadaist tendencies. In 1920 the two editors joined with Giulio Evola to publish Bleu, which was devoted entirely to Dada and which appeared in Mantua like the earlier journal.

CENDRARS, Blaise (1887-1961)
Blaise Cendrars (pseudonym of Frédéric Louis Sauser) seems to have adopted his name based on braise (ember) and cendres (cinders) whilst living in New York where he wrote 'Easter in New York', which had a profound influence on Apollinaire. In 1913 he set up the press Les Hommes Nouveaux, which published his collaboration with Sonia Delaunay, La Prose du trans-sibérien. Apollinaire helped place his poems in Les Soirées de Paris and related journals. On the outbreak of war he joined the French Foreign Legion and lost his right arm in the Somme campaign, necessitating him to learn to write with his left hand. [BL Panel 61].
[Centre d'Etudes Blaise Cendrars]

CHARCHOUNE, Serge (1888-1975)
Serge Charchoune participated in the Dada movement from 1921 to 1924 and contributed to the reviews Mécano, Merz, and Manomètre in collaboration with Schwitters, Lissitsky, Tzara, and Arp; founder of the leaflet/journal Transbordeur Dada.

CHOMETTE, René-Lucien (See CLAIR, René)


CITROEN, Hans (1905-1985)

CITROEN, Paul (1896-1983)
Started to experiment with photography with Erwin Blumenfeld. Began in 1919 studying in Berlin and at the Bauhaus in Weimar. Associated with the Dada movement in Berlin; participated in the Erste Internationale Dada Messe in 1920.

CLAIR, René (1898-1981)
After World War I René Clair (born René-Lucien Chomette) worked as a journalist, critic, and songwriter before entering motion pictures as an actor in 1920, when he adopted the name of Clair. In 1923 he wrote and directed his first film, Paris qui dort, also shown under the title The Crazy Ray. His next film, Entr’acte (1924), which was created to be shown between acts of a ballet by the modernist French composer Erik Satie, featured in its cast some of the most innovative artists of the day, including Eric Satie, Marcel Duchamp, Francis Picabia, and Man Ray. These two films established Clair as a leader of the avant-garde.

COVERT, John Raphael (1882-1960)
In 1909 John Covert (b. 1882, Pittsburgh) enrolled at the Academy of Fine Arts in Munich. Although he had a quite traditional academic training in Munich, he was also introduced to German modern art. When World War I broke out Covert sailed back to the United States. He settled in New York, where his cousin, Walter Arensberg, was at the center of a circle of artists, writers, and intellectuals that included Marcel Duchamp, Francis Picabia, and Man Ray. Covert took an administrative role in the founding and operating of New York's first avant-garde art organizations: the Society of Independent Artists, founded to sponsor unjuried exhibitions of modern art; and the Société Anonyme, founded by Katherine Dreier to exhibit and collect the work of modern artists.
In 1921 the Arensbergs moved to Hollywood and Duchamp returned to Paris. Covert closed his studio in 1923 and took a job as the New York agent for his cousin's company. He retired in 1951 and died in 1961. [NGA].

CRAVAN, Arthur (1887-1918)
Pseudonym of Fabian Lloyd. From 1911 to 1915 he published the critical magazine Maintenant which appeared in five issues.

CREVEL, René (1900-1935)
Born in Paris. After university, Crevel entered the French military. There, he befriended several other young writers who introduced him to members of the popular Dada movement. Crevel's new friends included Breton and Eluard, who contributed to the journal Littérature. With Roger Vitrac he co-edited the magazine Aventure (1921-1922). As Crevel became involved in politics, he attempted to intermingle the harshly logical world of communism with the surrealist realm of the irrational. In the mid 1920s, Crevel became ill with tuberculosis and retreated to a sanatorium in Switzerland. He committed suicide in 1935. [NGA].

CROTTI, Jean (1878-1958)
In 1915, seeking a place to live and work far away from World War I, Jean Crotti (b. 1878 in Bulle CH) and his wife Yvonne Chastel traveled to the United States, first visiting Crotti's brother in Ohio and then settling in New York. There, Crotti frequented the evening gatherings of artists and intellectuals at the apartment of Walter and Louise Arensberg, collectors of modern art and the center of New York's avant-garde. He became friends with Francis Picabia and shared a studio throughout fall/winter 1915-1916 with Marcel Duchamp, who was then beginning to work on The Large Glass.
Back in Paris, Crotti fell in love with Duchamp's sister Suzanne, whom he married in 1919. In January 1920 Crotti and Suzanne, along with Picabia and Georges Ribemont-Dessaignes, submitted their work to the first postwar Salon des indépendants, using this major cultural event to inject Dada into Paris. From 1921 onwards he gradually broke away from Dada, calling himslef 'TABU-DADA or DADA-TABU'. Crotti continued to paint into his later years and in the 1950s returned to motifs of overlapping circles and trajectories reminiscent of his TABU works of 1921–1922. He died in 1958. [NGA].



DERMÉE, Paul (1886-1951)
Paul Dermée (born Janssen, in 1886, Liège) left Liège for Paris in 1910. Before Dermée's participation in Dada, his most important affiliation among the Parisian avant-garde was Guillaume Apollinaire. Paul Dermée and his wife Céline Arnauld were frequent contributors to the dadaist journals Littérature, 391, Cannibale, and Proverbe. They also produced two shortlived journals of their own: in the spring of 1920, Dermée brought out the journal Z and Arnauld directed the sole issue of her periodical Projecteur. Dermée's contribution to Z consisted of the manifesto 'Qu'est-ce que Dada!', and a series of foreign news reports in the form of 'Radios'. He co-published, with Le Corbusier and the painter Amédée Ozenfant, the journal L'Esprit Nouveau which appeared between 1920 and 1925. After Dada Dermée and Arnauld continued to publish books of poetry and plays into the 1930s. After Dermée died in 1951, Arnauld committed suicide. [NGA].

DIX, Otto (1891-1969)
Otto Dix (b. 1891 near Gera) enrolled voluntarily in 1914 and was assigned to a field artillery regiment in Dresden. In the autumn of 1915 Dix was sent to the Western Front in northern France where he took part in the autumn campaign in Champagne, followed by several battles in the Somme in 1916. In late 1917 Dix was in Russia on the Eastern Front and in 1918 back to France. After the war he returned to Dresden in 1919 and enrolled at the Dresden Art Academy with Max Feldbauer and Otto Gussmann. In 1920 Dix met George Grosz, who, along with John Heartfield, invited him to participate in the First International Dada Fair. Dix's contributions to the show were Kriegskrüppel (45% erwerbsfähig!) and Der Fleischerladen. Dada sharpened Dix's developing brand of realism, in that it ridiculed falsity and indulged in the low, the caricatural, and the representation of human baseness. After Dada, Dix enjoyed a successful career as a painter, teaching at the Dresden Art Academy from 1927 until 1933, when he was dismissed by the Nazis. Otto Dix died in 1969. [NGA].

DOEHMANN, Carl Heinrich (1892-1982)
Pseudonym Diamonides. Associated with the Berlin Dada group, and Walter Mehring, Mynona and his cousin and brother-in-law Anselm Ruest; friend of Richard Huelsenbeck.

DOESBURG, Theo van (1883-1931)
See this site: Theo van Doesburg.

DOESBURG, Nelly van (1899-1975)

DUCHAMP, Marcel (1887-1968)
See on this site: Marcel Duchamp

DUCHAMP, Suzanne (1889-1963)
Shortly after World War I broke out Suzanne Duchamp (b. 1889 Blainville) went to Paris, where she served as a nurse's aid, continuing in this position even after the end of the war. Between 1916 and 1919, Suzanne developed her work further, her most productive period of artistic activity began about 1919, when she and Jean Crotti were married. As a wedding present, Marcel sent them instructions for 'Ready-made malheureux'. In 1920 Suzanne showed several of her works at the Salon des Indépendants, along with Francis Picabia and Crotti. In 1921 she and Crotti, who had maintained a certain distance from Dada events, mounted a two-person show of their work at the Galerie Montaigne. While the works at this show represented a survey of Suzanne's and Crotti's Dada work, the catalogue to the exhibition also featured a modified title, TABU Dada, that pointed the way to a new stage in their production. By 1922 Suzanne had begun making figurative paintings in a naive style resembling the work of Raoul Dufy or the Douanier Rousseau. Although in later years Crotti received more attention, Suzanne continued to exhibit her work, which appeared in 1956 in a one-woman show in Paris. She died in 1963. [NGA].


EGGELING, Viking (1880-1925)
During World War I Viking Eggeling teaches in Zuirich, where he is introduced to the circle of Dadaists and creates first sketches for image rolls and musical painting; 1920 first film experiments and collaboration with Hans Richter moves to Berlin in 1921; 1925 premiere of the 'Diagonal-Symphonie'.

EINSTEIN, Carl (1885-1940)
Associated with the Berlin Dada circles; co-published with John Höxter and George Grosz the magazine Der blutige Ernst.

ÉLUARD, Paul (1895-1952)
In 1918 Paul Éluard (ps of Eugène-Émile-Paul Grindel) was introduced to Louis Aragon, André Breton, and Philippe Soupault, the editors of Littérature. Éluard's poems were first published there in May 1919, after which he collaborated with the others as an editor. In February 1920, Éluard founded and edited the first issue of Proverbe. In 1921 Éluard began an artistic collaboration and personal relationship with Max Ernst. Eluard and his wife Gala visited Ernst and his family in Cologne. During this tumultuous weeklong visit, Eluard and Ernst collaborated on Répétitions, a volume of poetry previously planned by Eluard but now combined with Ernst's collages. It was published the following March. In this period the affair between Gala Eluard and Max Ernst became open. Eluard and Ernst began work on a second collaborative book project, Les Malheurs des Immortels. Because Ernst could not obtain a visa to travel to Paris, he and Eluard communicated by mail until they could finish their work on vacation together in Austrian Tyrol in the summer of 1922.
Eluard was a central member of the surrealist group from 1924 to 1938, but abandoned it when his political preoccupations took over. He became a member of the Communist Party and in World War II served in the French army and the communist resistance, during which he had constantly to evade the Gestapo. He died in 1952. [NGA].

ERBACH, Alois (1888-1972)
Participant of the First International Dada Fair - Otto Burchard Gallery, Berlin 1920.

ERNST, Max (1891-1976)
See on this site: Max Ernst.

EVOLA, Giulio (1898-1974)


FICK, Willy (1893-1967)
In 1916 Willy Fick met at an artist-centered anti-war group by Carl and Kaethe Jatho Franz Wilhelm Seiwert. Fick got into closer contact with the artists Marta Hegemann and Anton Räderscheidt who were friends of the Angelika (Fick's sister) and Heinrich Hoerle. Fick appeared in the 'Bulletin D exhibition' as an "unknown master from the beginning of the 20th century". His first works under his own name appeared in Stupid 1, the catalogue of the continuous exhibitions at the Räderscheidt apartment.

FLAKE, Otto (1880-1963)
Associated with the Dada circles in Zurich; co-published with Walter Serner and Tristan Tzara the magazine Der Zeltweg (1919) [»].

FRAENKEL, Theodor (1896-1964)
Fraenkel had participated in the activities of Paris Dada, but abandoned Dada in favour of medicine; he remained close to Surrealism.

FREYTAG-LORINGHOVEN, Elsa von (1874-1927)
Elsa von Freytag-Loringhoven was an unconventional avant-garde artist and poet associated with Djuna Barnes and Dada New York. She published in Little Review, Broom, the Liberator, and transition.
[FPG (Grove/Greve) & FrL (Freytag-Loringhoven)]

FRIEDLAENDER, Salomo (1871-1946)
Salomo Friedlaender was born in Gollantsch in Posen, studied medicine, philosophy, German literature, archaeology, and art history in Munich, Berlin, and Jena between 1894 and 1902. In 1906, Friedlaender went to Berlin, starting to write under the literary name 'Mynona', an anagram of 'anonym' [= anonymous], poetry, which he published in books like Durch blaue Schleier (1908) and expressionist publications like Der Sturm and Die Aktion, being intimate with the Berlin expressionist circle of Herwarth Walden, Else Lasker-Schüler, and Samuel Lublinski. At the same time he wrote satirical and grotesque prose works (Rosa, die schöne Schutzmannsfrau, 1913; Mein Papa und die Jungfrau von Orleans, 1921). In 1933, he fled to Paris, where he died in 1946.


GIACOMETTI, Augusto (1877-1947)

GOLDSTEIN, Carolina (See ARNAULD, Céline)

GOLYSCHEFF, Jefim (1897-1970)

GRAEFF, Werner (1901-1978)
[Werner Graeff website]

GRIEBEL, Otto (1895-1972)

GRINDEL, Eugène-Émile-Paul (See ÉLUARD, Paul)

GROSS, Otto (1877-1920)
[International Otto Gross Society]

GROSZ, George (1893-1959)
See on this site: George Grosz.

GROSZ, Eva (1896-1960)
Wife of George Grosz. Participant of the First International Dada Fair - Otto Burchard Gallery, Berlin 1920.

GRÜNWALD, Alfred Emanuel Ferdinand (See BAARGELD, Johannes Theodor)


HAUSMANN, Raoul (1886-1971)
See on this site: Raoul Hausmann.

HAVILAND, Paul Burty (1880-1950)
Paul Burty Haviland was born and raised in Paris. Following his graduation from Harvard University in 1901, Haviland joined the family business, serving as the New York representative of Haviland & Company of Limoges. After visiting '291' in 1908, he became an enthusiastic supporter of Stieglitz and the ideals of the Photo-Secession. In 1909 he began contributing articles to Camera Work.
Haviland's close association with Stieglitz (serving as assistant editor) and '291' stimulated him to experiment with photography. From 1908-1915 he produced a number of photographic portraits, figure studies, and city views. Images appeared in several issues of Camera Work (1909, 1912, 1914), and in 1910 he took part in the important exhibition of pictorial photography at the Albright Art Gallery, Buffalo. In 1915 he returned to France.

HEARTFIELD, John (1891-1968)
See on this site: John Heartfield.

HECHT, Ben (1893-1964)
Participant of the First International Dada Fair - Otto Burchard Gallery, Berlin 1920.

HENNINGS, Emmy (1885-1948)
See on this site: Emmy Hennings.


HERBIET, Georges (1895-1969)

HERMAN, Maximilian (1895-1971)
Maximilian Herman (ps M.H. Maxy) studied painting at the Academy of Fine Arts in Bucharest. In 1922, he became a pupil of Arthur Segal in Berlin, where he discovered the avant-garde in all its diversity. There he was also exposed to Constructivism and joined the Expressionist Novembergruppe. In 1923 Maxy returned to Romania. As well as contributing to the magazine Contimporanul, he established a new movement in 1925 with the avant-garde magazine Integral, which sought to convey the essence of all the new directions in the art world. He also designed sets for a number of theatres. After 1941, race laws made it impossible for Maxy to exhibit his work. He became an instructor at the Jewish School of Arts, teaching Jewish students who had been expelled from official Romanian art academies. In Communist Romania, Maxy was the director of the National Art Museum in Bucharest from 1949 until his death in 1971.


HERZFELDE, Wieland (1896-1988)
Wieland Herzfeld (b. in Weggis am Vierwaldstätter See, CH) met George Grosz in 1915 during a stay in Berlin after been dismissed from the army. In 1916 he was recalled and transferred to Silesia and later to the Western front. After a hunger strike he was sent to Berlin to recuperate. Herzfelde ( continued to publish journals during the war, namely the politically oriented art and literature magazine Neue Jugend. Heartfield produced all of the illustrations for the journal. In 1917 Herzfelde founded the left-wing revolutionary publishing house Malik Verlag. Herzfelde joined the German Communist Party along with his brother, Grosz, and Erwin Piscator. In 1919 Malik Verlag published a series of satirical journals, including Jedermann sein eigner Fussball, which was immediately banned, Die Pleite, and Der Gegner. On 7 March 1919 Herzfelde was arrested. He was released after Count Harry Kessler intervened on his behalf. He immediately published an account of his arrest and mistreatment in a pamphlet called Schutzhaft. Malik Verlag published Dada pamphlets and the catalogue for the First International Dada Fair in 1920, in addition to Grosz' portfolio of anti-militaristic drawings Gott mit uns.
After Dada, Malik Verlag became one of the prominent presses of the communist left in the Weimar Republic. With the advent of the Third Reich, Herzfelde fled to Prague and then to the United States. He returned to East Germany in 1949. Wieland Herzfelde died on 23 November 1988. [NGA].

HÖCH, Hannah (1889-1978)
See on this site: Hannah Höch.

HOERLE, Angelika (1899-1923)
The apartment of Angelika Hoerle (née Fick) and her husband Heinrich Hoerle became a gathering place between 1919 and 1922 for Cologne Dada members Max Ernst, Franz Seiwert, and Willy Fick, Angelika's older brother. The Hoerle Dadaheim offered Cologne Dada a base from which the artists planned publications and exhibitions. Heinrich Hoerle's Die Krippelmappe, Max Ernst's lithographs, Fiat Modes, and the Dada journal die schammade were produced there. The Hoerles also contributed to Der Ventilator as well as to Bulletin D, the first journal of Cologne Dada. The Hoerles' leftist political convictions brought them to distance themselves from Cologne Dada in 1920 and to form the more activist 'Stupidien' along with the artists Seiwert, Fick, Anton Räderscheidt, and Marta Hegemann. When Angelika Hoerle contracted tuberculosis in 1922, all such collaborations came to a halt. Angelika died 9 September 1923. [NGA].

HOERLE, Heinrich (1895-1936)
See HOERLE, Angelika

HUBBUCH, Karl (1891-1979)

HUELSENBECK, Richard (1892-1974)
See on this site: Richard Huelsenbeck.


ILIAZD (1894-1975)
Iliazd (pseudonym of Ilia Zdanevich) studied and worked in Moscow. He spent a year as an apprentice typographer. His Tbilisi designs for the covers of Kruchenykh’s Lacquered tights and Terentev’s Fakt are characterized by inventive typographic and graphic design that rivals that of the Dada group in Zurich. In Tbilisi he also wrote a number of plays (or dra) in a style derived from Ukrainian puppet theatre. The text was mostly written in 'transrational language' though it did include some Russian phrases and words, particularly scatological ones for a shock effect. A characteristic feature of these plays was that every word was given in phonetic transcription. He also experimented with the idea of simultaneous verse, where several voices speak different lines together. In 1919 he adopted the pseudonym Iliazd, In the early 1920s he went into exile in Paris where he published his play Le-Dantiu as a Beacon. [BL Panel 70].


JANCO, Marcel (1895-1984)
See on this site: Marcel Janco.

JOOSTENS, Paul (1889-1960)

JOSEPHSON, Matthew (1899-1978)

JUNG, Franz (1888-1963)


KASSÁK, Lajos (1887-1967)
Kassák’s extraordinary journey led him from uneducated metalworker to author, publisher, artist, theorist and designer - the self-educated charismatic leader of Hungarian Avant Garde. Kassák’s writings include free verse, visual poetry, experimental prose, articles and manifestos. His journals A tett (1915-1916) and MA (1916-1925) displayed typographic virtuosity. Never renouncing his social-ethical stance he led his Activist circle in urging art to effect social change. He objected to the rules of any authority but his own. During his Vienna exile (1919-26) after his involvement in the failed Hungarian uprising of 1919, Kassák engaged in visual art, created collages and undertook design work for advertising. His Képarchitektúra (Picture architecture, 1921) manifesto, geometric linocuts and paintings exemplified Hungarian Constructivism. He had good connections with the international Avant Garde and his work was known across Europe. Eventually returning to Budapest, Kassák continued publishing journals, such as Dokumentum (1926-1927) and Munka (Work, 1928-1939), but with diminishing avant-garde spirit. [BL Panel 64].

KLABUND (1890–1928)

KOBBE, Georg E. (1902-1934)
Participant of the First International Dada Fair - Otto Burchard Gallery, Berlin 1920.

KOCH, Georg ()
Unknown artist. Participant of the First International Dada Fair - Otto Burchard Gallery, Berlin 1920.

KOK, Anthony (1882-1969)
[Anthony Kok]

KOSTROWITZKY, Wilhelm Albert Vladimir Apollinaris (See APOLLINAIRE, Guillaume)

KÜPPER, Christiaan Emil Marie (See VAN DOESBURG, Theo)



LASKER-SCHÜLER, Else (1869-1945)

LEWIS, Percy Wyndham (1882-1957)
In his plea for a commission in World War I, Lewis claimed that he had "organised the 'Cubist' invasion of England without the loss of a single Cube". After studying art at the Slade School and in Paris, he settled in London in 1908 and took part in Post-Impressionist exhibitions. He founded Vorticism 1913-1915 and set up the Rebel Art Centre in opposition to Fry’s Bloomsbury-influenced Omega Workshops. He distanced Vorticism from Futurism and picketed Marinetti’s London recitations in 1914. He founded the magazine Blast (1914-1915) and wrote its manifesto. His novel Tarr (1918) is a key modernist text. He had an infallible capacity for controversy, alienated the literary Sitwell family with his satirical The Apes of God (1930), and flirted with Fascism. [BL].

EL LISSITZKY (1890-1941)

LLOYD, Fabian (See CRAVAN, Arthur)

LOEB, Harold Albert (1891-1974)
Harold Loeb was founder and chief editor of Broom from 1921-1924. In 1917, he started working for the Sunwise bookstore in Greenwich Village, where he became acquainted with a number of writers and artists. Among them was Alfred Kreymborg, with whom he went to France to establish Broom. After editing Broom, Loeb devoted his time mainly to writing. He wrote several novels, and published The Way It Was: A Memoir (Criterion : New York 1959).


MARINETTI, Filippo Tommaso (1876-1944)
Marinetti was the creator, promoter and financer of Futurism. He lived in Paris 1893-98, publishing symbolist poetry in French. In 1898 Marinetti moved to Milan, where he started the literary journal Poesia (1905-09). A car crash was the occasion of the creation of the first Futurist Manifesto, which appeared on the front page of Le Figaro (1909) and a series of performances in London, Moscow and St. Petersburg promoted Futurism across Europe. Other manifestos by him and fellow Futurist artists, writers and musicians followed. His Mafarka the Futurist (about an African Futurist) led to a trial for obscenity. He created ‘words in liberty’ which exploited the visual and aural qualities of poetry, as in Zang Tumb Tuuum (1914). He was an early supporter of Italian Fascism and died near the Swiss border in flight from the Italian Partisans [BL].

MASSOT, Pierre de (1900-1969)

MATTIS-TEUTSCH, Janos (1884-1960)

MAXY, M.H. (See HERMAN, Maximilian)

MEHRING, Walter (1896-1981)

MEYER, Agnes Ernst (1887-1970)
Agnes Ernst first met Alfred Stieglitz and the 291 circle in 1908, when she was an enterprising freelance reporter for the New York Sun. After marrying the wealthy financier Eugene Meyer (1875-1959) in 1910, she became an avid art collector. In 1915 Meyer publish with Marius De Zayas and writer Paul Haviland the first issue of 291. Eugene and Agnes Meyer donated important works to the National Gallery beginning in 1958, including paintings by Paul Cézanne and Edouard Manet, sculptures by Constantin Brancusi, and watercolors by John Marin.

MICIC, Ljubomir (1882-1942)
The first artist to collaborate with Ljubomir Micic and to contribute to Zenit's original orientation towards Expressionism was Vilko Gecan (1894-1973). Micic's Zenitism was supported only by a small number of the youngest Yugoslav artists, who joined and left after varying period of collaboration. Mihailo S. Petrov (1901-1983) did linocuts of an expressionistic-abstract structure, wrote poems and published translations on abstract art for Zenit. From 1922-1925, Jo Klek's (Josip Seissel, 1904-1987) drawings, aquarelles and collages were the best representatives of Zenitist art. Micic's important mission was collecting and exhibiting avant-garde arts in Zenit editorial offices in Zagreb and Belgrade, and the organisation of Zenit international exhibition of new art in Belgrade 1924. [BL Label 182].



OSTAIJEN, Paul van (1896-1928)

OZENFANT, Amédée (1886-1966)
In 1915 Ozenfant founded the magazine L'Elan, which he edited until 1917. In 1917 he met the Swiss architect and painter Le Corbusier; together they articulated the doctrines of Purism in their book Après le cubisme. They both felt Cubism had become far too confused and decorative, believing in a more mechanical approach to art. With Le Corbusier he founded L'Esprit Nouveau (1920–1925), the first periodical dedicated to the C20 Modernist aesthetic in 'all its manifestations'.


PANSAERS, Clément (1885-1922)
Clément Pansaers (born May 1, 1885) began working as a sculptor, but he grew interested in the works of Sigmund Freud, Daoism, and German Expressionism, which he introduced to Brussels. From 1917 to 1918, while living in occupied Wallonia, Pansaers edited the antimilitarist magazine Résurrection. The German occupiers censored Résurrection for its alliance with the Bolshevik revolution, and Pansaers was later hounded by the Belgian authorities. As the leading Belgian practitioner of Dada, Pansaers also was responsible for a celebrated issue on Dada in the Antwerp magazine Ça ira. His own 'dadaist' poetry, Pan-Pan au Cul du Nu Nègre was published in 1920. This pamphlet, along with Bar Nicanor (1921), was read and admired by figures like Theo Van Doesburg, Francis Picabia and André Breton. Pansaers died in 1922.

PÉRET, Benjamin (1899-1959)

PETRY, Walter (1898-1932)

PFEMFERT, Franz (1879-1954)
Franz Pfemfert, a left-wing political journalist, became editor of Der Demokrat in 1910 and founded the journal Die Aktion in 1911. He also edited anthologies of Expressionist poetry, Aktions-Lyrik (1916-1922, published in his own Verlag Die Aktion), as well as Aktionsbücher der Aeternisten (1916-1921), with contributions by Franz Hardekopf and Carl Einstein, Politische Aktions-Bibliothek (1916-1930), and Der rote Hahn (1917-1925), with contributions by Ivan Goll, Franz Mehring and Johannes Becher. A communist opposed to social democracy, he later opposed stalinism. He emigrated to Czechoslovakia in 1933, to France in 1936, and to Mexico in 1941.

PICABIA, Francis (1879-1953)<
See on this site: Francis Picabia.

PREISS, Gerhard (1899-1919)


RADNITZKY, Emmanuel (See RAY, Man)

RAY, Man (1890-1976)
See on this site: Man Ray.

REES, Adya van (1876-1959)
Otto van Rees and his wife Adya came into contact with Zurich Dada artists in the late summer of 1915. In Ascona, a small village outside Zurich, Otto and Adya joined a community of people in Switzerland escaping from the war; they developed an especially close working relationship with Hans Arp. In November 1915 Otto, Adya, and Arp showed the results of their collaborative work at the Galerie Tanner in Zurich. The exhibition was cited by Tristan Tzara in his Chronique zurichoise as the first event of Zurich Dada. Otto also created the poster for the exhibition, an abstract design of geometric shapes. Most likely the first appearance of dadaist abstraction in Zurich, the exhibition was significant for its display of handicrafts next to paintings and for its presentation of mixed-media works constructed from paper, paint, and fabric. When Otto and Adya returned to Paris in 1916, Corray purchased all their Swiss works, which were later exhibited at the Cabaret Voltaire and the Galerie Dada. After the death of their daughter in a train crash the Van Reeses lived in Holland for the next several years, establishing close connections with Dutch artistic circles. In 1928 they moved to Paris, where they were both briefly associated through Arp with the Cercle et carré group to advance abstract art. [NGA].

REES, Otto van (1884-1957)
See REES, Adya van

REVERDY, Pierre (1889 - 1960)
In 1916 Reverdy founded the magazine Nord-Sud with Max Jacob and Guillaume Apollinaire, which contained many Dadaist and then surrealist contributions.

RIBEMONT-DESSAIGNES, Georges (1884-1974)
The painter, musician, poet, and playwright Georges Ribemont-Dessaignes (b. in Montpellier) collaborated with Picabia on the journal 391 in the summer of 1919. In November he and Picabia traveled to Zurich to visit Tristan Tzara. At the end of the month, he sent Tzara some requested texts to be included in Dada 6 and 7. This was the beginning of his role as official 'polémiqueur', of Paris Dada. He also contributed to several other journals, including Littérature, Mécano, and Proverbe. The year 1920 marked a period of intense Dada activity for Ribemont-Dessaignes. He regularly participated in Dada soirées and events, where his work was performed. Georges Ribemont-Dessaignes was actively involved with the surrealist movement from 1924 tot 1929 and continued to write poems, essays, and novels. He died on 9 July 1974. [NGA].

RICHTER, Hans (1888-1976)
See on this site: Hans Richter.

RIGAUT, Jacques (1898-1929)

RINSEMA, Evert (1880-1958)

RINSEMA, Thijs (1877-1947)

ROCHÉ, Henri-Pierre (1879-1959)

ROCHE, Juliette (1884-1980)

ROSENBLATT, Lou (1889-1970)

ROSENSTOCK, Samuel (See TZARA, Tristan)

RUBINER, Ludwig (1881-1920)

RUEST, Anselm (1878-1943)


SAMUEL, Ernst (See RUEST, Anselm)

SATIE, Erik (1866-1925)

SAUERMANN, Alfred ()

SAUSER, Frédéric Louis (See CENDRARS, Blaise)

SCHAD, Christian (1894-1982)
In 1914 Schad emigrated to Zurich, where Walter Serner introduced him to the Dadaist circle surrounding the Cabaret Voltaire. Nevertheless, the paintings of this period – mainly of café or cabaret scenes – betray Cubist influences. In 1917 Schad moved to Geneva, where he produced works, showing greater Dadaist influence. It was also at this time that he devised his famous Schadographs – photograms created by placing objects (and sometimes texts) on light-sensitive paper and exposing them to light from different angles, so that the silhouettes of the objects were recorded on the paper. Decades later, this technique was to be repeatedly exploited by artists like Làszlò Moholy-Nagy and Man Ray. In 1920 Schad returned to Munich and moved to Berlin in 1927, where the majority of his celebrated ‘Neue Sachlichkeit’ portraits were painted. [NGA].

SCHAMBERG, Morton Livingstone (1881-1918)
Morton Livingston Schamberg (b. Philadelphia) was an occasional visitor of the Arensberg Group of French and American avant-garde artists and writers. He was known for his mechano-morphic paintings and that situates him within the dadaist sphere. However, despite being called a "doughty follower of Picabia", after the April 1916 show, Schamberg's ideas about art differed greatly from those espoused by the dadaists. He believed that all art, of no matter what historical era or culture, is constructed according to the same principles, and he viewed his own work as continuing the tradition of classical representation begun in the High Renaissance. His dedication to modern art also motivated him to attempt to educate his hometown Philadelphia audience; in May 1916 he organized the first important exhibition of modern painting and sculpture in Philadelphia, stationing himself in the galleries to answer questions from curious or skeptical visitors. Schamberg died from the flu epidemic in 1918. [NGA].

SCHENK, Adolf (See SZITTYA, Emil)

Dadameisterkoch. Participant of the First International Dada Fair - Otto Burchard Gallery, Berlin 1920.

SCHLICHTER, Rudolf (1890-1955)
After returning to Karlsruhe in the winter of 1918, Rudolf Schlichter (b. Calw) founded with Georg Scholz and friends an artist's group with the programmatic name Rih (Arabic word meaning 'wind'). The group sought to establish a foothold for avant-garde art in their provincial town and to make contacts with avant-garde organizations in other cities. Schlichter moved to Berlin in the fall of 1919. Shortly thereafter the group was dissolved. In Berlin, Schlichter joined the Communist Party and became involved in the Novembergruppe. There he met George Grosz, John Heartfield, and their Dada circle. Schlichter's decisive new political engagement led him to create satirical drawings and illustrations for leftist magazines such as Arbeiter Illustrierte Zeitung, Rote Fahne, Der Knüppel, and Der Gegner. Schlichter turned to making collages which were shown at both his solo exhibition with Burchard and at the Dada Fair in 1920. For the Dada Fair, Heartfield and Schlichter created the Preussicher Erzengel, a stuffed dummy with the head of a pig dressed in the gray uniform of the Prussian military. In 1921, when the jury for the Grosse Berliner Kunstausstellung denied admission to one of Schlichter's paintings, a group of protesters, among them several dadaists, wrote an open letter to the Novembergruppe denouncing it for having become depoliticized and commercial. Subsequently, Schlichter, Grosz, and Heartfield founded the Rote Gruppe (Red Group) in 1924. A year later, Schlichter participated in the Neue Sachlichkeit exhibition in Mannheim. Beginning in 1933 Schlichter was banned from his profession. He died in 1955. [NGA]

SCHMALHAUSEN, Otto (1890-1958)
Artist in Berlin and a close friend of George Grosz. Exhibited at the First International DADA Fair in 1920. Schmallhausen was married to Lotte Peter, the younger sister of Grosz’s wife Eva.

SCHOLZ, Georg (1890-1945)
After the war Georg Scholz (b. Wolfenbüttel) founded with Rudolf Schlichter and other artists, Rih (Arabic for 'wind') as a local branch of the Novembergruppe. Although he never moved to Berlin, it was through his contact with the Novembergruppe that Scholz met George Grosz, John Heartfield, and their Dada circle. Scholz became a member of the Communist Party and created satirical political drawings for leftist journals and illustrated books. Although Scholz had not previously participated in Dada activities, he was invited by Heartfield and Grosz to exhibit at the International Dada Fair in Berlin in 1920. In 1923 Scholz began teaching art at the School of Fine Arts in Karlsruhe. His paintings, less satirical and more realistic, were exhibited at the Neue Sachlichkeit exhibition in Mannheim. In 1933 he lost his position at the academy and his works were removed from public museums in Karlsruhe and Mannheim. Scholz died in 1945. [NGA].

SCHWITTERS, Kurt (1887-1948)
See on this site: Kurt Schwitters.

SEGAL, Arthur (1875-1944)
In 1914 Arthur Segal (b. Jassy) moved to Ascona, Switzerland, where he met, among others, Hans Arp, Hugo Ball, and Tristan Tzara. Through them he participated in many Dada events in Zurich and exhibited at Cabaret Voltaire, even though he was never considered a Dadaist. Returning to Berlin in 1920, Segal became a member and then the director of the Novembergruppe. [JHM]

SEIWERT, Franz Wilhelm (1894-1933)

SELIGMAN, Walter Eduard (See SERNER, Walter)

SERNER, Walter (1889-1942)
In 1912 Walter Serner (b. Born Walter Eduard Seligmann in Carlsbad) moved to Berlin, where he studied law and wrote art criticism for Franz Pfemfert's Die Aktion. To avoid conscription or arrest Serner fled to Zurich in 1915. There he became good friends with Christian Schad and began to publish Sirius. Serner's point of view, for which Sirius served as the platform, was deeply pessimistic but also relatively conservative. Unlike the dadaists, he continued to believe that rational understanding produced the best kind of criticism. It made him critical about the events and actions of other dadaists. Why Serner changed his mind about Dada, becoming the author of one of the first and most importent manifestos of the movement, remains unclear. The manifesto, Letzte Lockerung, drafted in 1918 and read by Serner at the eighth Dada soirée in April 1919, expressed a profound nihilsm.
Even while participating in Dada evenu Zurich, Serner was traveling back and forth between Zurich and Geneva, where he moved in September 1919. His attempts to organize Dada events there, such as the First Dadist World Congress in late 1919 and the Grand Dada Ball in 1920, were financial failures. In October 1920 Serner left for Paris, where he met André Breton and Tzara. His campaign of misinformation, which involved placing an ad in a Berlin paper describing himself as the world leader of Dada, was not appreciated by Tzara, who was eager to establish his own priority.
After Dada Serner spent his time traveling around Europe, writing and publishing criminal detective stories and novels. In 1938 Serner sttled in Prague. Although he and his wife were issued references for emigration permits, the Serners were deported in 1942 first to Theresienstadt and then further east. They died in a concentration camp. [NGA].

SOFFICI, Ardengo (1879-1964)
Like the artists Severini and Modigliani, Soffici was an important link between French and Italian culture. He lived in Paris between 1900 and 1907 where he exhibited in the Salon des Indépendants and earned a living by contributing to various journals. His friends included Picasso, Braque, Juan Gris, Max Jacob, Blaise Cendrars and Apollinaire. After suffering a spiritual crisis in 1907 he returned to Tuscany but continued to visit Paris until the outbreak of World War I. A strong advocate for a cultural renaissance in Tuscany, he contributed articles about the Parisian Avant Garde to the Florentine journals Leonardo and La Voce and in 1910 he organised the first Impressionist exhibition in Florence, the impact of which compares with Roger Fry’s London exhibition, 'Manet and the Post-Impressionists'. Together with Giovanni Papini, he founded Lacerba (1913-1915). [BL Panel 66].

SOUPAULT, Philippe (1897-1990)
Philippe Soupault (b. Chaville) spent the war recovering from an almost fatal medical experiment. Through Guillaume Apollinaire, to whom he had sent some of his poems, Soupault was introduced to the parisian literary and artistic avant-garde. In 1917 at one of Apollinaire's café gatherings, he met André Breton. In March 1919 Breton and Soupault launched Littérature. The first few issues included works by Comte de Lautréamont, Arthur Rimbaud and Lettres de guerre by Jacques Vaché. When Tristan Tzara arrived in the spring of 1920 and Dada events began to take place in Paris, Soupault became one of the participants, known briefly as 'Philippe Dada'. At the Théâtre de l'oeuvre in March 1920, Soupault appeared on stage in the play S'il vous plait, cowritten with Breton. At the Salle Gaveau theater, Soupault took part in a spoof of a music hall number, Le célèbre illusioniste. He was also an actor in Tzara's Vaseline ssymphonique. Although Soupault initially refused to renounce Dada when Breton asked for his support for the Congress of Paris in 1922, by 1923 he had also retreated from the movement, becoming active with the surrealists. [NGA].

SPENGEMANN, Christof (1877-1952)

STEEGEMANN, Paul (1894-1956)

STUCKENSCHMIDT, Hans Heinz (1901-1988)

SZITTYA, Emil (1886-1964)
Between 1909 and 1912, Emil Szittya lived in Paris, where he published in the periodical he edited with Blaise Cendrars, Les Hommes Nouveaux, Neue Menschen which he edited with Hans Richter. At this time he still participated in Freemason and anarchist organizations. He was in Brussels at the outbreak of war, then returned to Hungary, and then in early 1915 appeared in Zurich among antiwar activists. Wih Hugo Kersten and Walter Serner he edited the journal Der Mistral, of which three issues were published. Between 1915 and 1917 he published in the radical journal Új Nemzedék [= New Generation], in Pesti Futár [= Pest Courier] and Magyar Figyelo [= Hungarian Observer], and later in his own pamphlet-type journal Horizont. In 1927 he broke with his home country, Hungary and lived in Paris since.


TAEUBER-ARP, Sophie (1889-1943)
See on this site: Sophie Taeuber.

TEIGE, Karl (1900-1951)
Karel Teige was an artist, art critic and theoretician. He was the leader of Devetsil, the first Czech artistic movement to declare an explicitly political programme, and became the foremost figure in the Prague Avant Garde. Rejecting art inspired by transcendental ideals, he advocated a democratic concept of art in which typography and mechanical reproduction, as in his Constructivist ABC, replaced artistic individuality with anonymity. In his enthusiasm for Constructivism he proclaimed the supremacy of function over form and of man as the 'stylistic principle of Constructivism', and aimed to create a universal 'speech without words' that would transcend national boundaries. He is notable not only for his work as editor of the avant-garde journals ReD, Stavba and Disk, but also for his experiments with photomontage, typography and stage design, 'pictorial poems' uniting poetry and painting, and for the series of Surrealist collages which he executed in later life. [BL Panel 63].

TZARA, Tristan (1896-1963)
See this site: Tristan Tzara.


VACHÉ, Jacques (1896-1919)

VINEA, Ion (1895-1964)

VITRAC, Roger (1899-1952)


WOOD, Beatrice (1893-1998)
In 1916 Beatrice Wood (b. San Francisco) befriended Marcel Duchamp, and Pierre-Henri Roché, spending much of their time at Walter and Louise Arensberg's apartment in the company of New York's avant-garde artists and writers. In 1917 at Duchamp's instigation, she submitted two paintings to the exhibition of the Society of Independent Artists. Her work caused both laughter and anger among visitors and critics. After Duchamp's 'Fountain' was excluded from the exhibition, Wood, Duchamp, and Roché dedicated the second issue of their magazine The Blindman to the ensuing scandal. In 1918 Wood left for Montreal with a two-year theater contract. When she returned, the Arensbergs were making preparations to leave for Hollywood; the group surrounding them gradually dissipated. Wood stayed in New York until 1928, when she too went to California. Over the course of sixty years, she gained international recognition for her ceramic work. She died in 1998, 105 years old. [NGA]


ZAYAS, Marius de (1880-1961)
Marius de Zayas arrived in New York in 1907 and within two years was exhibiting at Alfred Stieglitz's Fifth Avenue gallery, '291'. De Zayas arranged Pablo Picasso's first United States exhibition, held in 1911, and an exhibition of African sculpture at the same gallery in 1914. In 1915 De Zayas and writers Paul Haviland and Agnes Ernst Meyer publish the first issue of 291. The same year, De Zayas opens The Modern Gallery, a commercial venture financed by Picabia, Haviland, and Eugene Meyer. In 1919, with the financial backing of Walter Arensberg De Zayas opened his own gallery, the De Zayas Gallery. This will prompt, in 1920, the creation of the Société Anonyme founded by Katherine Dreier, Man Ray, and Marcel Duchamp with the purpose to build its own permanent collection of international modern art. De Zayas remained faithful to Dada until de end. In 1923, when many have left Dada, he will associate with Picabia and Paul de Massot in 'La pomme de pin' to continue Dada as a secret society faithful to its true origins.



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'Artists' Biographies', in Leah Dickerman (ed.), Dada. Zurich, Berlin, Hannover, Cologne, New York, Paris (National Gallery of Art : Washington DC 2005) 460-489. Catalogue of the exhibition at the National Gallery of Art (2005) [NGA].

Breaking the Rules. The Printed Face of the European Avant Garde 1900-1937 / Stephen Bury (British Library : London 2008) [BL].

'Biographies', in From Dada to Surrealism. Jewish Avant-Garde Artists from Romania, 1910-1938 / Radu Stern and Edward Voolen (ed.) (Joods Historisch Museum Amsterdam : Amsterdam 2011) 1129-145 [JHM].

banner: (detail) Raoul Hausmann, 'Mechanischer Kopf' (Der Geist unserer Zeit), 1920 [Collection Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris].